CASA Participants 2005


Albayrak, Őzlem
Al-Haq, Fawwaz
Boletsi, Maria
Chiper, Sorina
Ciccarelli, Barbara
Coban, Asli
Coban, Aslihan
Cuninghame, Patrick
Elmas, Esra
Eray, Senay
Erek, Ayse
Feigenbaum, Anna
Finn, Julian
Gökalp, Ela
Gönüllü, Ayse
Haarstad, Hĺvard
Haché, Alexandra
Huijg, Dieuwertje
Klei, Alice van der
Kuloglu, Ceyda
Langen, Esther
Lara, Sebastian
Lopez, Miguel Martinez
Melnyk, Daria
Muňoz, Beatriz Calderón
Pantea, Maria Carmen
Papadimitriou, Tasos
Pezzini, Hugo
Poldervaart, Saskia
Post, Suzan van der
Ree, Rutger van
Rossi, Davide
Sabatino, Emilio
Sanders, Angela
Scholl, Christian
Serbezova,Cema Martinova
Siray, Mehmet
Smith, Monica
Stergiou, Evangelia
Wege, Mark

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Őzlem Albayrak
Market and Welfare: The Magic Relationship of the Economics
The main goal of "the economics" is to find an answer to the question: How does a society use its scarce resources to provide and to increase social welfare? The answer of this question is simple: Perfectly competitive markets. Mainstream economics, "the economics", does not have any suspicion about existence of perfectly competitive markets and its power in providing individual and social welfare. The theoretical relationship between market and welfare connection in a liberal view has two basic problems. First of them is based on the definition of welfare and liberalism: They are only interested in economic welfare. The answer to the question "why are they only interested in economic welfare?" is the restriction of their theoretical framework to the economic aspect of a society. Naturally the result of this type of position is to consider a society as an economy and reduce the social economic welfare to the economic one.

Fawwaz Al-Haq
Linguistic Imperialism and Linguistic Globalization: Understanding the Concepts and Working Out the Linguistic Challenges
This presentation aims at investigating critically the concepts of "Imperialism" and "Globalization" at linguistic level. The major objective is to demystify the concepts, and to find out how they are going to be reflected on the sociolinguistic profile of Arab countries. The age of globalization signals the urgent need for Arab nations to re-engineer themselves to encounter the challenges arising from the integral relationship between linguistic homogenization and hegemonization, and between globalization, informative technology and the knowledge economy. Implication from language planning will be drawn to delineate the problem.

Sorina Chiper
The Roma – truly anti-global or genuinely global?
My presentation will dwell upon the dichotomies that the gypsy/Roma representations and identity are riddled with. I will mainly focus on Romanian data, addressing such questions as: to what extent the terms "Gypsy" and "Roma" are positively or negatively loaded, and whether a change in name can foster a change in attitude? What have been the consequences of gypsy/Roma migration in the eyes of the Romanian population? To what degree is the Romanian society able, or ready to integrate the Roma, or, vice versa, to what degree are they willing to integrate? Is there a solution to the Roma problem? Is there a Roma problem in the first place? How to "purge" people's mind from racism, when they believe they are not racists? How to understand the Roma communities when, as a non- Roma, as any outsider, one cannot cross the "border" separating them from other groups or communities?

Barbara Ciccarelli
The Commodification of Exclusion: The "Outsider Art" of Henry Darger
The commodification of exclusion has been a highly debated topic in academia for years in regards particularly to the exploitation of Jewish suffering by the Holocaust Industry. A similar case can be made regarding the fascination with the creative genius of the mentally ill. My paper will focus on Henri Darger's art and how it draws the public's attention. This is because of the speculations about the artist's mental illness and the shocking display of naked little girls engaged in scenes of battle. The outrage just heightens the celebrity status of the deceased artist, which is reflected in the famous poet John Ashbery choosing Darger's art as the subject of his book of poems entitled, Girls on the Run. Darger's artistic production was fueled by the desire to break out of exclusion and validate his inclusion, his place in culture. Thus, is it not time that we embrace him and all others who are designated as "outsiders" instead of commodifying their exclusion in such a way as to validate ourselves as insiders? The fascination with so-called "outsiders" seems to be a creative possibility beyond the psychic borders of the western or dominant perspective. This paper will explore other possibilities for making that psychic break, in particular, the possibility of intentionally inducing a traumatic moment to generate creativity for the purpose of social change.

Asli Coban – Aslihan Coban – Senay ErayEla GökalpAyse GönüllüCeyda Kuloglu
Our workshop aims to examine the process of engendering the political agenda of Turkey during the reform process concerning the New Turkish Penal Code. Turkey is a country where important reforms concerning gender equality objective have been put into implementation. Throughout this workshop the Turkish Penal Code reformation is considered as a marking process with respect to gender equality movement in Turkey. With the advent of New Turkish Penal Code, the difference between men and women, the norms about their normal conducts and relations, gender related presumptions concerning the concrete –standart situations- are negotiated by involved parties and redefined. In this context, the reformation process highlights the historical characteristic of Turkish women's movement, its engagement with international bodies and women's rights regime concerning gender equality objective and Turkish state's approach to the issue and its cooperation with other actors. In the roundtable discussion the issue mentioned above will be examined from four perspectives, respectively:
1. The importance of the Turkish Penal Code Reformation and its Historical Background with respect to Gender Equality Movement in Turkey, discussed by Aslı Çoban;
2. The Turkish Women's Movement after 1980's in the Democratization Process of Turkey, discussed by Ayşe Gönüllü;
3. Impacts of International Gender Equality Mechanisms on the New Turkish Penal Code, discussed by Ceyda Kuloğlu and Ela Gökalp;
4. The stance of the Turkish State through the New Turkish Penal Code Reformation Process, discussed by Şenay Eray.
5. Importance of the Turkish Penal Code Reformation and its Historical Background with respect to Gender Equality Movement in Turkey, discussed by Aslihan Coban.

Aslihan Coban
– European Union and the Borders of European Identity
As we all could agree with the idea that, establishment of European Union (EU) in 1991 was a project of European integration after the cold war period. In this study, the project of European integration will be discussed through the conception of European identity together with the tension between Eastern and Western Europe. The major problem of this work is to investigate the dynamics of Europe's identity construction and the changing definition of "Europe", "Europeanness" during and after the collapse of Soviet Block. In order for a proper focus on the Eastern enlargement which has enlarged the "borders of Europe" to the twenty five countries with the join of ten post Soviet countries on 1st May 2004, I think, one should consider the statement that, "Europe as a cold-war construct was subordinated to the wider opposition of West versus East" (Delanty, 1995). This makes us to ask that, what about the contradiction between European identity and Eastern enlargement of EU? In short, regarding the new borders of EU, I would like to contest the borders of "Europeanness" and discuss the role of East-West tension considering the ideal of "overcoming the divisions in Europe" and the "unity of Europe".
– Importance of the Turkish Penal Code Reformation and its Historical Background with respect to Gender Equality Movement in Turkey
The reform process is a crucial historical moment to examine the women's activism in Turkey, and its relations with the international bodies, and state's approach to gender equality objective and struggle. In 2004 a penal code reform has been passed in the Turkish parliamentary and issued to be enforced on the 1th April (it has been postponed to 1th July). Throughout the process when draft law was prepared, voted and legislated, women's movement in Turkey have raised its voice through lobbying, conducting discussion meetings, report-preparing and organizing mass street-meetings in order to influence the process and pushed for a new code breaking with its historical patriarchal philosophy. Most of the debated articles did not change completely in a way women's activism demanded. We argue that this failure in some critical articles stemmed from both weaknesses in the Turkish women's movement and weaknesses of its relations with the international agencies (UN, EU) and also Turkish state's instrumentalist approach to the gender related concerns in the reform. Still these are not the weaknesses came about first in this specific occasion but reflective of the historical characteristic of the gender equality struggle in Turkey and relations between women's movement, international agencies, and the state as the actors involved.

Patrick Cuninghame
Maquiladoras, identity and gender on the US-Mexican Border
This presentation's point of departure is that the local and global configurations of identity in the US-Mexican border community of "El Paso del Norte" (Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and El Paso, Texas) are determined by processes of economic globalisation, whose main manifestation is or has been until recently the maquiladora assembly plant. Previous studies on border identities have emphasized more socio-cultural processes and have not analysed economic processes sufficiently as decisive in the construction of identities. Deploying an interdisciplinary approach based on recent theories of cultural and economic globalisation and of gender and hybrid identities, the paper's objective is to identify and problematise the salient characteristics of the identities of maquiladora women workers on both sides of the border and to ascertain if transnational and hybrid identities are emerging because of the impacts of globalisation. This question and others raised by gendered border theory are only too pertinent in the context of the internationally notorious failure of the local and national Mexican judiciary to halt the continuing 'feminicide' of over 400 women in Ciudad Juarez and in the state of Chihuahua since 1993, most of them maquiladora workers and internal migrants. The paper also seeks, therefore, to explore the nexus of globalisation, gender, border, work and violence and the forms of resistance of women workers.

Esra Elmas and Ayse Erek
Marketing the borders: Establishing a Cultural Identity
The metropolitan city of Istanbul, with its constant flux- unlike other cities in Turkey- has been and is a zone of cultural contestation. On the eve of Turkey joining the EU, Istanbul today can be regarded as an emerging market for the new economy of cultural identity, namely 'Europeanness.' Throughout the city, spaces, from billboards to university emblems and company logos, act as a medium of exchange where it is possible to locate, describe, and metaphorize Europeanness. Within this multidimensional space exists a perspective, held by market participants, which can be defined as the already 'Europeanized' gaze. The space, as representation itself, is an active space in which the borders of 'Europeanness' are intersected and reworked. In our work in progress, we will try to trace how marketing the borders becomes a political strategy of cultural identity through verbal and visual representations. How social change becomes possible through rethinking and redescribing boundaries will be followed by several examples we face in our everyday lives in Istanbul.

Senay Eray
The Stance of the Turkish State through the new Penal Code Reformation Process
This presentation focuses on the Turkish State as an actor in the process of the Turkish Penal Code reformation. The presentation examines which groups and organizations were effective in the early discussions about the idea of changing the Turkish Penal Code into the New Turkish Penal Code, and whose demands were considered during the later developments. A second focus is on the response to the women's movement and the requirements of the E.U.; I will examine whether the government acted on the demands of one or the other. Thirdly, I will look at the different opinions on gender equality that emerged from within the government. Finally, the reasons for the postponement of the New Turkish Penal Code will be analyzed.

Anna Feigenbaum
Transdisciplinarity and/as a Methodology of the Oppressed
This roundtable engage the research and activist work of participants to investigate the political potential and limitations of transdisciplinarity and/as a Methodology of the Oppressed (based on Chela Sandoval). Paying particular attention to how disciplinary borders and boundaries function as mechanisms of control, the roundtable will investigate the importance of tactical movements and strategies for pursuing a "shared understanding of resistance." We will address questions such as: How does knowledge move in academia? What structures and obstacles create and maintain an "apartheid of academic knowledges"? Is there a shared understanding of resistance? What types of scholarship and activities contribute to such a shared understanding? How can and do certain gatherings contribute to this projects? Are there dangers in mapping the escape of subordination and domination? What can we as researchers and activists do to help knowledges move across the borders and boundaries of instutions?

Julian Finn
Copyright and Copyleft – Opportunities for academic and civil societies
As Copyright is getting more and more important in today's life, its restrictions bccome more and more problematic. On the other hand, alternatives like Copyleft do not only solve problems but also open up many opportunities for society. In this three-hour workshop we want to give an insight into copyright law and its existing alternatives, such as Creative Commons and the GNO Licenses GPL and FDL. Afterwards we want to discuss the problem of copyright and the changes of alternative licenses and alternative compensation systems for academic and civil societies as well as in economic environments.

Ela Gökalp and Ceyda Kuloglu
The Impact of International Gender Equality Mechanisms on the New Turkish Penal Code
Two international gender equality mechanisms are significant concerning women's rights in Turkey, "The European Union's gender regime, and the United Nations. Since Turkey's full membership application to the EU in 1989, gender equality has become increasingly important for the Turkish state because it has become pre-condition for membership. The reformation of the Turkish Penal Code is an important issue to achieve gender equality in Turkey. This presentation analyzes the impacts of conventions and other documents of these two international gender equality (E.U. and U.N.) mechanisms on the reformation process of the New Turkish Penal Code.

Ayse Gönüllü
The Role of the Turkish Women's Movement after 1980 in the Democratization Process of Turkey
The second wave of the Turkish Women's Movement (based on the first wave which had lasted from 1910-1920) started in 1980 as the first social movement after the military coup on 12th September 1980. The coup, during which all democratic rights were abolished, led to a de-politization of Turkish society. Repression of both radical left and radical right brought political life to a complete halt. In this atmosphere Feminism was heard as a first voice of civil society. The demands of women for equality, freedom and solidarity brought the feminist point of view to the forefront of the fight for democracy. This presentation analyzes the process of the Turkish Women's Movement, its continuities and breaks until today.

Hĺvard Haarstad
EEF and the Bologna process: ways forward in the struggle over education
I will talk about EEF in Bergen, some of the discussion that has been taking place, the main differences between the EEF and the Bologna approaches to education, and possible ways forward. Hopefully the discussion can revolve around what system of education we want, and how can it be achieved.

Alexandra Haché
Presentation of the "European Guide for Social Transformation and the "Action Research Network for the ESF Process"
This workshop presents these two European networks, their activities and objectives. For further information on them please visit

Dieuwertje Huijg
Utopian aspects of Feminism
(No Abstract)

Alice van der Klei
The Ché Guevara Photograph
This presentation analyzes the over-famous Ché Guevara photograph which quickly developed into a very lucrative poster, stuck-on iconic image industry. I will approach the picture in terms of power representation in the present-day pop culture. Spilling out of its frame, the photograph is permanently reinventing itself as well as crossing borders to reinvent the concept of freedom, reframing itself through the autopoeisis of the Ché himself.

Esther Langen
The Position of Foreign Students and Staff in Higher Education
This workshop will address the position of foreign students / staff in higher education. I will give some facts and figures about foreign students and staff, and I will talk about cultural differences and intercultural competences.

Sebastian Lara
Inner Tourism
(No Abstract)

Miguel Martínez Lopez
Space and Politics in the Spanish Squatters Movement
This presentation investigates the Politics of the Spanish Squatters' Movement since the 1980s. The movement is very diverse, developing its own specificities in each city and being organized in different ways in with different political ideologies. Furthermore, most activists denied their membership to a "squatter's movement" and instead pointed out that squatting was a means to their diverse political ends. Yet, the different movements share characteristics like the types of buildings they squatted, shared libertarian principles and the local authorities as main opponents, and some coordination among each group and among the different groups.This presentation informs about internal and external complexities faced by these urban and global activists.

Daria Melnyk
The Animatrix
The Animatrix is a dystopian film that moves the viewer to consider why people have, throughout history, preferred ignorance over knowledge and action. Although the form the film takes does exhibit some utopian elements, the directors' didactic purpose is to use the film as a tool for historical awakening. This the directors accomplish by employing the language of the media to create a new language, one that anticipates the reconciliation between man and "machine," by
which I mean not only technology but any "other" that we exclude in an attempt to conquer.

Beatriz Calderón Munoz
Home, Exile, Fragmentation: A reading of Theresa Hak Kyung Cha
Following, among others, Avtar Brah's argument that presents the concept of diaspora as a critique of discourses of fixed origins and explores the idea of home and return in the diasporic context, I propose to discuss the implications of these concepts and study and debate how they are represented in Theresa Hak Kyung Cha's work, both as a writer and as an artist. This Korean American author, who migrated to the United States when she was a child, explores exile and the concepts of "migration" and "home" in order to re-articulate a dislocated identity. In her best-known literary work, Dictée, she strives to portray and articulate the idea of home and belonging both to a tradition and to a particular location even if the very essence of these concepts is radically challenged. Through a multiplicity of voices which give account of the hybrid nature both of the author and of the text and which are embedded in the frame of a postmodern narrative, she examines power relations, historical and literary traditions and the idea of fragmentation and dislocation whose sentiment we find pervading the whole book. Her work raises questions as to how we can study and/or define identities, ethnicities? How these concepts are constructed and read in the contemporary world? And, also how we can relate our own personal experiences as travelers, border-crossers, immigrants or tourists to this discussion?

Maria Carmen Pantea
Child Labor: In Between Global Standards and Cultural Relativism
Child labor discourse is characterized by two conflicting tendencies. According to global standards children have the right to be protected from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child's education or to be harmful to the child's health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development (UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989: Article 32). However, according to principles of cultural relativism "childhood" is social construct defined differently by different cultures, societies, and states. There thus is an apparent need for a standard that is both universal and reflects the diversity of childhood(s). How are we, however, to deal with the tension between cultural relativism and universal standards? Should the one be preferred over the other? Is a balancing required? Are the tensions between cultural relativism and human rights discourse to be conciliated in a globalized society? Moreover, is conciliation a hazardous compromise? Can one sustain universal human rights while promoting openness to diversity?

Tasos PapadimitriouEvangelia StergiouMaria Boletsi
A (new) spectre is haunting Europe – the spectre of immigration
Although obviously not a stranger to such phenomena, for over two decades, Europe has seen a rising tide of racism and xenophobia threatening to engulf its politics. Increasingly since 9/11, this has become particularized in the form of Islamophobia, coupled with an ideological anti-Semitism propagated by neo-Nazi parties. Recent events have triggered the perception that Christianity is at war with Islam, allowing far-right parties to claim a popular resonance and repackage their message in a way that jettisons much of their historical baggage. Immigration has become a highly charged issue throughout Europe, and governments and mainstream political parties increasingly co-opt exclusive and even explicitly xenophobic and racist policies and rhetoric as a response to public 'concerns' that are fuelled, if not created outright, by sectors of the media often through hysterical misinformation. This workshop aims to share knowledge and experiences on the situation in various countries around Europe, while trying to analyze why xenophobia is on the rise and immigration and multiculturalism are perceived as such a threat. It also wants to discuss on a practical level what we, as citizens/activists/teachers etc, can do to counter these developments, and it aims to attempt to formulate convincing answers to the most prevalent misinformed anti-immigration arguments, while taking into consideration 'legitimate' concerns about economic welfare, social cohesion and cultural identity.

Hugo Pezzini
The Formation of the Latin American Neoliberal Individuality
My work interrogates whether it is rational to even hypothesize the notion of molding a human being so she/he finds meaning in her/his continuous dedication to serving the needs of the market –the creation of 'a consumer archetype.' Next, I try to assess the neoliberal market's possibilities of balancing the means, disposition, and desires and number of the consumers with the market's need of allocating its output. It would seem to be that the dependence of the market on the generation of 'proper desires,' and availability, of consumers is sufficient reason for violence as described by Frederic Jameson. Defying the various apocalyptic scenarios delineated by defeatist preconceptions of the mainstream eschatologists of Latin Americanist theory, my work closes presenting real, pragmatic alternatives. They are informed by the actions and experiences of several Latin American communities that are devising "posthegemonic" strategies of resistance. They are immediately put to work to cope with the devastating effects of the so far unsuccessful hostile struggle by the market's mentioned-above emissaries to jumpstart and incorporate modern local economies into the postmodern neoliberal project of globalization.

Saskia Poldervaart
This workshop will deal with the question how different groups/streams of the alterglobalisation movement interact with each other and with society? The question it will simultaneously try to address is whether Do-it-Yourself politics is enough to change society?

Suzan van der Post - Christian Scholl
Utopian Aspects of Feminism
(No Abstract)

Rutger van Ree
Squatting Movements and Pleasure
This presentation will focus on two main questions,
1. Is 'the personal political'? And what is the relationship between 'politics' and 'culture' in modern social/political movements?
2. What is the role of pleasure in social/political movements?
As to the first question I will elaborate on the idea of public and private and how this idea corresponds mostly with the sphere dominated by men, women might also had a say, but they were confined within a modern construction. Second wave feminists in order to create a change had to create an alternative to the accepted idea of public and private. However, while history is made up of individual and collective actions, and so, one has a (minor) influence on the shape of things to come, if one feels the need for a change, it does not do only to reflect theoretically on political systems, or to change things on a governmental level, but also to change the day-to-day situation of 'real' people. The concept of D.I.Y. comes to mind, as does 'buurtstrijd', a squat term with militant connotation for changing the world by beginning in your own neighborhood. One of the consequences is that the separation between 'culture' and 'politics' is not so strict as it is usually assumed to be.
As to the second question I will ask whether because the true revolutionary is in a constant struggle with the powers that be and is constantly aware of the dire situation of the less privileged, the revolutionary leftist movement has a difficult relationship to idleness and frivolity? So are revolutionaries always to work hard, be serious and stay devoid of joy? Undoubtedly, there will be a wide consensus that this is at least a caricature. But in how far is this image factually correct? And in how far is this necessary or preferable?

Davide RossiEmilio Sabatino
For a school system with a future
From Paris to Milan, from Lisbon to Bellinzona, European students and professors are asking themselves impatiently about the freedom of thought, the energy and intelligence. Schools and Universities are places of culture and cannot be reduced to offices of a consumerist society. We are getting organized everywhere in Europe to construct an alternative for a different tomorrow. For these reasons we funded "FESAL-E", "European Federation of alternative trade unionism in Education" in September 2003. Pupils, students, teachers and parents of pupils of different countries (France, Italy, Switzerland, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain, and with contacts in Holland and Germany) united in the desire to recuperate the lost essence of a school that should be the home of all of society. While the school should encourage the liberty of teaching of the teachers as well as the liberty of learning of students, instead of limiting such liberties, we experience that increasingly, external systems of "qualitative evaluation" are inserted. These have the aim to stop the pupils and professors from constructing through daily analysis and confrontation the indispensable knowledge that allows them to confront the society they face daily. This is happening as a consequence of the "General Agreement of Trades and Services" (GATS) in which the European governments pretend to transform the school in a location at the service of the rules of the market. Only a school in which knowledge is the patrimony of youngsters and of teachers has a future. Only the passion for what is taught, and for what is studied, brings the school to life. Therefore, the school should be a free public space, liberated of reasons of state.
"FESAL-E" also struggles for the respect of the rights of organization in trade unions, a fundamental element of democracy and plurality.
The feeling of freedom that unites us wants to return the smile (not the stomach pains!) to the students, pupils and teachers that every day make the school with their heart and their intelligence. Together, with courage, with determination, with passion, for freedom and for culture.

Angela Sanders
Film Screening: Europlex and Domestic Scapes

Cema Martinova Serbezova
Trade, Growth and Poverty
Globalization is unavoidable and trade liberalization is an important policy which should exist in the reform packages for both industrialized and developing countries. Gross domestic product (GDP) growth has a strong link with the degree of the openness of a country which refers to the share of import and export percentage of GDP. Social effects of trade will be discussed based on a short theory introduction to the topic.

Mehmet Siray
Performance and Performativity: The problematization of Border(s)and (non)Identity in the Kutlu Atman's Video Installation "1+1=1"
The article aims at analyzing Kutlug Ataman's video installation (2 DVDs, each approximately 50 minutes, two- screen video installation with variable dimensions) 1+1=1 shown in Istanbul Biennial in 18 September-16 November 2003.
The article problematizes the illegal journey of a Turkish Cypriot who crosses illegally the border in between north and south Cyprus. The video installation covers the Turkish Cypriot's memories about her childhood in the southern part of Cyprus, the obligatory immigration of her family members to northern part and the division of two parts after 1974. She memorizes all those "events" from various perspectives. If we repeat what she said at the beginning of the video installation: "memory is, no doubt, selective", we can claim that the art work questions several issues from different point of views while showing at the same time how this (these) selective memory (ies) shifts. My aim is to show how the bodies and identities are determined in terms of the division of spaces which are usually defined by law and prohibition. Even though bodies and identities are determined by borders and limits, I will argue that "the law" cannot succeed to substitute well defined and absolute identity roles to citizens/individuals. In this article, following and underlining Kutlug Ataman's indications, I will discuss how certain kinds of identities (and respectively bodies) are transgressed in terms of radicalizing and ridiculising the borders.

Monica Smith
Domestic Migrant Workers Through Artistic Means
I am interested in organizing one workshop and one roundtable discussion. I would like to organize a workshop for people interested in addressing the issues of domestic migrant workers through artistic means: film, theater, writing. I am in the process of completing a film on Sri Lankan domestic laborers working in Lebanon. A cut of the film should be ready to be viewed by mid-June. I would also like to organize a roundtable to talk about ways to address agency of domestic migrant workers. Recently much has been written in academia in regards to how the worth and identity of the domestic is constructed through governmental bodies, hiring agencies, and economic policies. Drawing upon Foucault and Agamben, many have attended to the powers that create the worker's subjectivity. But I am more interested in attending to the ways that these women have agency in the shaping of their identities, their lives and constructed work. For example, why are they deciding to go to work? How are they able to subvert the system to work for them? What are they doing with the money they earn? In focusing on these aspects we are able to work outside of the frame of globalization and neo-liberalism that constructs such workers as pawns within the capitalist system.

Mark Wege
The conflict between the individual emancipation and the rationalising tendencies in social movements
Social movements base and flourish from their diversity. There are as many reasons for engaging oneself in a movement as activists. These subjective motivations stand in a conflict with the rationalising tendencies to answer questions like: What are the common goals and demands and how should they be pursued? The discussions in the movement often rather focus on these strategic questions, then adressing this conflict. During the last months I was concerned with this problem from a psychological and historical perspective. In this workshop I want to share some of my thoughts and conclusions. I hope the discussion in the workshop, will be more concrete than this description :-) and involve the shared experiences of the participants. Therefore the group should not be bigger than 15 people.